Headen, I, Laraia, B, Coleman-Phox, K, Vieten, C, Adler, N, Epel, E. (2018) Neighborhood Typology and Cardiometabolic Pregnancy Outcomes in the Maternal Adiposity Metabolism and Stress Study. Obesity A Research Journal, 27(1), 166-173.
Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between neighborhood typologies classified across multiple neighborhood domains and cardiometabolic pregnancy outcomes and determine variation in effectiveness of a mindfulness-based stress-reduction intervention on outcomes across neighborhood types.
Methods: Neighborhoods of participants in the Maternal Adiposity Metabolism and Stress (MAMAS) intervention (n = 208) were classified across dimensions of socioeconomic, food, safety, and service/resource environments using latent class analysis. The study estimated associations between neighborhood type and three cardiometabolic pregnancy outcomes—glucose tolerance (GT) during pregnancy, excessive gestational weight gain, and 6-month postpartum weight retention (PPWR)—using marginal regression models. Interaction between neighborhood type and intervention was assessed.
Results: Five neighborhood types differing across socioeconomic, food, and resource environments were identified. Compared with poor, well-resourced neighborhoods, middle-income neighborhoods with low resources had higher risk of impaired GT (relative risk [RR]: 4.1; 95% confidence Interval [CI]: 1.1, 15.5), and wealthy, well-resourced neighborhoods had higher PPWR (beta: 3.9 kg; 95% CI: 0.3, 7.5). Intervention effectiveness varied across neighborhood type with wealthy, well-resourced and poor, moderately resourced neighborhoods showing improvements in GT scores. PPWR was higher in intervention compared with control groups within wealthy, well-resourced neighborhoods.
Conclusions: Consideration of multidimensional neighborhood typologies revealed important nuances in intervention effectiveness on cardiometabolic pregnancy outcomes.