Shiah, Y., Lsieh, H., Chen, H., Radin, D. (2017). Effects of Intentionally Treated Water on Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana Seeds with Cryptochrome Mutations. EXPLORE, 13(6), 371-378.
Objective: A previous experiment suggested that consumption of intentionally treated tea influenced subjective mood under double-blind, controlled conditions. To investigate that effect objectively, again under double-blind, controlled conditions, we studied whether Arabidopsis thaliana seeds hydrated with intentionally treated vs. untreated water would show differences in hypocotyl length, anthocyanin, and chlorophyll.
Design: Three Buddhist monks focused their intention on commercially bottled water with the goal of improving the growth of seeds; bottled water from the same source served as an untreated control. Seeds with the following three variations of cryptochrome (CRY) were used: the wild type Arabidopsis (Columbia-4), a gain-of-function mutation (His-CRY2), and a loss-of function mutation (cry1/2), where “gain” and “loss” refer to enhanced and reduced sensitivity to blue light, respectively. Seeds were hydrated with treated or untreated water under blinded conditions, and then placed in random positions in an incubator. The germination process was repeated three times in each experiment, each time using new seeds, and then the entire experiment was repeated four times.
Results: Data combined across the four experiments showed a significant decrease in hypocotyl length in the His-CRY2 seedlings (treated mean 1.31 ± 0.01mm, untreated mean 1.43 ± 0.01mm, P < 10–13), a significant increase in anthocyanin with all three forms of cry, particularly His-CRY2 (treated mean 17.0 ± 0.31mg, untreated mean 14.5 ± 0.31mg, P < 10−4), and a modest increase in chlorophyll in His-CRY2 (treated mean 247.6 ± 5.63mg, untreated mean 230.6 ± 5.63mg, P = .05). These outcomes conformed to the monks’ intentions because a decrease in hypocotyl length and increase in anthocyanin and chlorophyll are associated with enhanced photomorphogenic growth. These experiments suggest that the His-CRY2 mutation of Arabidopsis may be an especially robust “detector” of intention.