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IONS Discovery Lab (IDL) Report

How to Interpret the Report

Most outcomes are presented as average (mean) values for your group. For example, if you look at the sample result below, you will see that the average value for the “How interconnected you are with others?” item was 73.4 before the workshop and was 90 after the workshop.

EXAMPLE:

IDL Interconnectedness

You can look at the average values and see if they went up or down after your workshop. For example, if the pain scores went from 5.0 before to 2.0 after, you would understand that participants had pain symptoms decreased from the workshop. In our interconnectedness example above we see that the score increased by 16.6 points towards greater interconnectedness with others, which is in the direction that we would like.

IDL Interconnectedness P valueIf the measure was completed before and after your event, you will see a p-value calculating the statistical difference between the pre- and post-values. You want to see this value be below 0.05 which will be marked with an asterisk*. This means that statistically speaking there is a 95% likelihood that the difference you are seeing actually does exist and is not due to chance. The p = 0.05 is the common cut-off used for scientific studies. The lower the p-value, the more confident you can be in the change. In the self-transcendence example above, we see a p-value of 0.01. This means that we are 99% sure that the difference between the pre- and post-values are not due to chance.

What if none of my measures have a p-value less than 0.05?

If the values are moving in the right direction but the p-value is greater than 0.05 that may mean that you did not have enough participants for statistical power to detect a change in the pre-post values. The more participants you have taking the measures, the more confident you can feel of the results you are seeing. It may also mean that your workshop does not affect that factor in the way we are measuring it. This information can help you refine your workshop so that you are achieving the outcomes you are intending with your participants.

Interconnectedness

A self-transcendence questionnaire and questions on how interconnected the participants felt with nature and with others were the measures used to explore your participants’ perceived sense of interconnection with themselves, others, and nature.

The Cloninger self-transcendence scale is a 15-item subscale of the Cloninger 125-item Temperament and Character Inventory. It explores participants’ experience of the spiritual aspects of themselves and their perception of how integrated they are with the universe. Cloninger et al. defined self-transcendence as “the extent to which a person identifies the self as…an integral part of the universe as a whole” (p. 975). Thus, a person high on self-transcendence is keenly aware of being part of a larger whole—of being in a spiritual union with God or nature.1 A higher score on this scale reflects higher self transcendence (range 0-15).

Self/Nature

Nature connectedness is the extent to which individuals include nature as part of their identity.2 Conservation literature is replete with references to being in touch with, connected to, or part of nature. Given that a person has a sense of connection with nature, and that they care for nature, they may be motivated to act in the best interest of nature. When connection with nature is low, the individual then cares more about self than about nature, and commitment to act is focused on benefiting self. Connectedness to nature is measured with a self-report scale that ranges from zero, which is visually represented by two separate circles and denotes no connection of the self to nature, to 100, which is visually represented by overlapping circles and denotes complete connection of self to nature.

IDL Self-Nature Scale

 

Self/Other

The impact social connectedness has on the psychology of individuals is not simply an external feature that provides context for individual behavior but a capacity to be internalized as a part of a person’s social identity. Positive psychological consequences are often the result that individuals with a sense of meaning, purpose, and belonging feel and that come from a social environment comprised of others (communities, families).3 Feeling connected with other people also drives outcomes that relate to social mobility. We measure this with a self-report scale that ranges from zero (not at all connected; others and self-circles are separate) to 100 (completely connected to others; others=self).

IDL Self-Other Scale

 

Revealing Information and Energy from Beyond Space & Time

Four tasks were administered in regard to revealing information and energy from beyond space and time. The tasks evaluate various aspects of receiving information from beyond the traditional senses. These abilities range from the commonly experienced intuition or hunches to more unique experiences like remote viewing (the ability to know something about a place, object, or person without the use of the traditional five senses) and psychokinesis (the ability to move matter with mental effort alone).

Object Counting Task

Jar of M&MsThe Object Counting Task investigates intuition. “Intuition is the ability to understand immediately without conscious reasoning and is sometimes explained as a ‘gut feeling’ about the rightness or wrongness of a person, place, situation, temporal episode or object.”4 The participant is presented with a picture of a jar containing items. The image is displayed very briefly such that they are not able to consciously count the number of items. The participant guesses how many items they believe are in the jar. The participants are shown different images at their pre- and post-assessments. The values recorded in the example table below are the deviations from the correct answer for each jar with smaller scores being more accurate.

Time Estimation

People’s perceptions of time are changed during altered states of consciousness such as meditation.5 Time perception can be measured in different ways. We can record a person’s ability to report how long a period of time is (interval length estimation) or perceive when a certain amount of time has passed (perceived speed of time passage). The time estimation task evaluates the participant’s perceived passage of time. The participant is asked to estimate 10 seconds. The participant pushes a button to start the task and then pushes it again when he/she thinks 10 seconds have passed. The values recorded in the example table below are the deviation from the actual time passed.

Remote Viewing

Remote Viewing TaskRemote viewing is a mental faculty that allows a perceiver to describe or give details about a target that is inaccessible to normal senses due to distance, time, or shielding. For this task, a blank frame is displayed in the center of the screen, and five photos are displayed below it. The participant chooses which of the five images they think will appear in the blank space. The participant completes 10 trials. The values listed in the example table below represent the percent correct.

Bubble Task

Bubble TaskThe bubble task is a psychokinetic task. Small bubbles are moving on the screen and the participant is asked to concentrate to make the bubbles form a circle for 15 seconds. The participants then relax for 15 seconds. The movement of the bubbles to form a circle is linked to a random number generator. The normal function of the random number generator results in a value of zero for this task. If the participant is able to affect the random number generator, then their values would deviate away from zero in either a positive or negative direction. The values listed in the example table below represent the deviation from zero. Greater numbers represent a greater psychokinetic effect.

EXAMPLE:

IDL Revealing Info Space & Time

Innovation, Transformation, and Wellbeing

Innovation

Creativity is the ability to develop new ideas and to discover new ways of looking at problems and opportunities. Innovation is the ability to apply creative solutions to those problems and opportunities in order to enhance people’s lives or to enrich society. Creativity is measured using a self-reported scale of 0-100; 0= not all creative to 100 = very creative.

EXAMPLE:

IDL Creativity Measure Example Table

Transformation

“Transformation, a discontinuous leap forward in consciousness, a paradigm shift, wherein the person is significantly changed in terms of world view, behavior and attitude.”6

EXAMPLE:

IDL Transformation Measures

Wellbeing

Subjective well-being is defined as: Good mental states, including all of the various evaluations, positive and negative, that people make of their lives and the affective reactions of people to their experiences.7 Subjective well-being includes a reflective assessment on a person’s life, a person’s emotional states, and a sense of meaning and purpose in life, and can influence and be influenced by income level.8 Physical health such as quality of sleep9 and pain10 can also influence a person’s well-being. Many other concepts such as compassion shape who we are and our sense of well-being. An overall self-reported well-being scale is asked of each participant, 0 = worst you have ever been to 100= best you’ve ever been.

Compassion is an emotional response when suffering is perceived and involves an authentic desire to help alleviate that suffering. Compassion is measured using five questions that participants respond on a scale of 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree.

IDL Wellbeing Measures

References

  1. Cloninger CR, Przybeck TR, Svrakic DM, Wetzel RD. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A guide to its development and use. St. Lous, MO: Center for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University; 1994.
  2. Schultz PW. Inclusion with nature: The psychology of human-nature relations. Psychology of sustainable development: Springer; 2002:61-78.
  3. Haslam SA, Jetten J, Postmes T, Haslam C. Social identity, health and well-being: An emerging agenda for applied psychology. Applied psychology: an international review. 2009;58(1):1-23.
  4. McCrea SM. Intuition, insight, and the right hemisphere: Emergence of higher sociocognitive functions. Psychol. Res. Behav. Manag. 03/03 2010;3:1-39.
  5. Berkovich-Ohana A, Dor-Ziderman Y, Glicksohn J, Goldstein A. Alterations in the sense of time, space, and body in the mindfulness-trained brain: a neurophenomenologically-guided MEG study. Front. Psychol. 2013;4:912.
  6. Neal JA, Bergmann Lichtenstein BM, Banner D. Spiritual perspectives on individual, organizational and societal transformation. Journal of organizational change management. 1999;12(3):175-186.
  7. OECD. OECD Guidelines on Measuring Subjective Well-being. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2013.
  8. Jebb AT, Tay L, Diener E, Oishi S. Happiness, income satiation and turning points around the world. Nature Human Behaviour. 2018/01/01 2018;2(1):33-38.
  9. Jean-Louis G, Kripke DF, Ancoli-Israel S. Sleep and quality of well-being. Sleep. 2000;23(8):1115-1121.
  10. Gureje O, Von Korff M, Simon GE, Gater R. Persistent pain and well-being: a World Health Organization study in primary care. JAMA. 1998;280(2):147-151.

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