Gizer IR, Ehlers CL, Vieten C, Feiler HS, Gilder DA, Wilhelmsen KC. (2012) Genome-wide linkage scan of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use in the UCSF family alcoholism study. Psychiatric Genetics, 22(5):235-44.
Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that rates of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use are increased among individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence relative to those who are not. Thus, the present study conducted genome-wide linkage scans of antisocial behavior, depression, and impulsive substance use in the University of California at San Francisco Family Alcoholism Study.
Antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and impulsive substance use were assessed using three scales from the MMPI-2, the Antisocial Practices content scale (ASP), the Depression content scale (DEP), and the revised MacAndrew Alcoholism scale (MAC-R). Linkage analyses were conducted using a variance components approach.
Suggestive evidence of linkage to three genomic regions independent of alcohol and cannabis dependence diagnostic status was observed: the ASP scale showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 13 at 11 cM, the MAC-R scale showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 15 at 47 cM, and all 3 scales showed evidence of linkage to chromosome 17 at 57–58 cM.
Each of these regions has shown prior evidence of linkage and association to substance dependence as well as other psychiatric disorders such as mood and anxiety disorders, ADHD, and schizophrenia thus suggesting potentially broad relations between these regions and psychopathology.