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Ancient Cosmology: A Map of the Future?

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We all know the two celestial motions that have a profound effect on life and consciousness. Diurnal motion, Earth’s rotation on its axis, causes humans to move from a waking state to a sleep state and back again every twenty-four hours. Our bodies have adapted to Earth’s rotation so well that it produces these regular changes in consciousness without our even thinking the process remarkable. Earth’s revolution around the sun —the second celestial motion, which Copernicus identified — has an equally significant effect, prompting trillions of life forms to spring out of the ground, to bloom, fruit, and then decay, while billions of other species hibernate, spawn, or migrate en masse. Our visible world literally springs to life, completely changes its color and stride, and then reverses with every waxing and waning of the second celestial motion.

The third celestial motion, the precession of the equinox, is less understood than the first two, but if we are to believe ancient cultures from around the world, its effect is equally transformative. What disguises the impact of this motion is its timescale. Like the mayfly, which lives but one day a year and knows nothing of the seasons, the human being has an average life span that comprises only one-360th of the roughly 24,000-year precessional cycle. And just as the mayfly born on an overcast, windless day has no idea that there is anything as splendid as sunshine or a breeze, so do we, born in an era of materialistic rationality, have little awareness of a golden age or higher states of consciousness – though that is the ancestral message.

Giorgio de Santillana, former professor of the history of science at MIT, tells us that most ancient cultures believed consciousness and history were not linear but cyclical, rising and falling over long periods of time. In their landmark work, Hamlet’s Mill, de Santillana and coauthor Hertha von Dechend show that the myth and folklore of more than thirty ancient cultures spoke of a vast cycle of time encompassing alternating dark and golden ages moving with the precession of the equinox. Plato called this vast cycle the Great Year.

Although the idea of a great cycle linked to the slow precession of the equinox was common to numerous cultures before the Christian era, most of us were taught that such a view is a fairytale, that there was no “golden age.” An increasing body of new astronomical and archaeological evidence, however, suggests that this cycle may have a basis in fact. More importantly, understanding the cycle provides insight into civilization’s direction at this time as well as the view that consciousness may be expanding at an exponential rate in the not-too-distant future. If this is so, then interpretations of the 2012 phenomenon may have real significance. Understanding the cause of precession is key.

Precession Observed

The observation of Earth’s three motions is quite simple. In the first, rotation, we see the sun rise in the east and set in the west every twenty-four hours. And if we were to look at the stars just once a day, we would see a similar pattern over a year: the stars rise in the east and set in the west. The twelve constellations of the zodiac — the ancient markers of time that lie along the ecliptic, the sun’s path — pass overhead at the rate of about one per month and return to the starting point of our celestial observation at the end of the year. And if we looked just once a year, say on the autumnal equinox, we would notice the stars move retrograde (opposite to the first two motions) at the rate of about one degree every seventy years. At this pace, the equinox falls on a different constellation approximately once every 2,000 years, taking about 24,000 years to complete its cycle through the twelve constellations. This is called the precession (the backward motion) of the equinox relative to the fixed stars.

The standard theory of precession says it is principally the Moon’s gravity acting upon the oblate Earth that must be the cause of Earth’s changing orientation to inertial space, a.k.a. “precession.” However, this theory was developed before astronomers learned the solar system could move and has now been found by the International Astronomical Union to be “inconsistent with dynamical theory.” Ancient oriental astronomy teaches that an equinox slowly moving or “precessing” through the zodiac’s twelve constellations is simply due to the motion of the sun curving through space around another star, which changes our viewpoint of the stars from Earth. At the Binary Research Institute, we have modeled a moving solar system and found it does indeed better produce the precession observable, while resolving a number of solar system anomalies. This strongly suggests the ancient explanation may be the most plausible, even though astronomers have not yet discovered a companion star to Earth’s Sun.

Beyond the technical considerations, a moving solar system appears to provide a logical reason why we might have a Great Year, to use Plato’s term, with alternating dark and golden ages. That is, if the solar system carrying the Earth actually moves in a huge orbit, subjecting Earth to the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum of another star or EM source along the way, we could expect this to affect our magnetosphere, ionosphere, and very likely all life in a pattern commensurate with that orbit. Just as Earth’s smaller diurnal and annual motions produce the cycles of day and night and the seasons of the year (both due to Earth’s changing position in relation to the EM spectrum of the Sun), so might the larger celestial motion be expected to produce a cycle that affects life and consciousness on a grand scale.

A hypothesis for how consciousness might be affected by such a celestial cycle can be built on the work of Dr. Valerie Hunt, a former professor of physiology at UCLA. In a number of studies, she has found that changes in the ambient EM field (which surrounds us all the time) can dramatically affect human cognition and performance. In short, consciousness appears to be affected by subtle fields of light, or as quantum physicist Dr. Amit Goswami would say, “Consciousness prefers light.” Consistent with myth and folklore, the concept behind the Great Year or cyclical model of history is based on the Sun’s motion through space, subjecting Earth to waxing and waning stellar fields (all stars are huge generators of EM spectra) and resulting in the legendary rise and fall of the ages over great epochs of time.

A Historical Perspective

Current theories of history generally ignore myth and folklore and do not consider any macro external influences on consciousness. For the most part, modern history theory teaches that consciousness (or history) moves in a linear pattern from the primitive to the modern, with few exceptions, and it includes the following tenets:

  • Mankind evolved out of Africa
  • People were hunter-gatherers until about 5,000 years ago
  • Tribes first banded together for protection from other warring parties
  • Written communication preceded large engineered structures or populous civilizations

The problem with this widely accepted paradigm is that it is not consistent with the evolving interpretation of recently discovered ancient cultures and anomalous artifacts. In the last hundred years, major discoveries have been made in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, South America, and many other regions that break the rules of history theory and push back the time of advanced human development. Specifically, they show that ancient peoples were, in many ways, far more proficient and civilized nearly five thousand years ago than they were during the more recent dark ages of just five hundred to a thousand years ago. In Caral, an ancient complex of unknown origin on the west coast of Peru, we find six pyramids that are carbon dated to 2700 BC, a date contemporaneous with Egyptian pyramids and that rivals the time of the first major structures found in the so-called Cradle of Civilization in Mesopotamia. Caral is an ocean away from the Cradle. We find no evidence of writing or weaponry, two of the so-called necessities of civilization, but we do find beautiful musical instruments, astronomically aligned structures, and evidence of commerce with distant lands — all signs of a peaceful and prosperous culture.

Gobekli Tepe presents an even greater challenge to conventional accounts of history. Dated to 9000 BC, this site in Turkey contains dramatic architecture, including carved pillars of huge proportions. To find that something so large and complex existed long before the dates accepted for the invention of agriculture and pottery is an archaeological enigma. These sites defy the standard historical paradigm. And what is stranger still is that so many of these civilizations seemed to decline en masse. In ancient Mesopotamia, Pakistan, Jiroft, and adjacent lands, we find knowledge of astronomy, geometry, advanced building techniques, sophisticated plumbing and water systems, incredible art, dyes and fabrics, surgery, medicine, and many other refinements of a civilized culture which seem to have emerged from nowhere and were completely lost over the next few thousand years.

By the time of the worldwide dark ages, every one of these civilizations, including the big ones in Egypt and the Indus Valley, had largely turned to dust or nomadic ways of life. Near the depths of the cyclic downturn, there were ruins and little else, while the local populace knew nothing of the builders except through legend. In some areas where larger populations still remained, such as parts of Europe, poverty, plague, and disease were often rampant, and the ability to read, write, or duplicate any of the earlier engineering or scientific feats had essentially disappeared. What happened?

While records of this period remain spotty, the archeological evidence indicates that consciousness, reflected as human ingenuity and capability, was greatly diminished. Humanity seemed to have lost the ability to do the things it used to do. Interestingly, this is just what many ancient cultures predicted. Stefan Maul, the world’s foremost Assyrianologist, shed light on this phenomenon in his 1997 Stanford Presidential Lectures series. He tells us that the Akkadians knew they lived in a declining era. They revered the past as a higher time and tried to hang on to it, but at the same time, they predicted and lamented the dark ages that would follow. His etymological studies of cuneiform tablets show the ancient words for “past” have now become our words for “future” and the ancient words for “future” have become our words for “past.” It is almost as if humanity orients its motion through time depending on whether it is going toward or away from a golden age.

This principle of waxing and waning epochs is depicted in numerous bas-reliefs found in ancient Mithraic “mystery school” temples. The famed Tauroctany, or bull-slaying scene, is usually surrounded by two boys, Cautes and Cautopetes. One holds a torch up on the ascending side of the zodiac, indicating a time of light, and the other holds a torch down on the descending side of the zodiac, indicating a time of darkness. As the chart below shows, these time periods correspond with the Greeks’ description of  Earth’s movement through periods of rising and falling consciousness.

Jarred Diamond, well-known historian-anthropologist and author of Guns, Germs and Steel, makes a good case that it is primarily local geographic and environmental advantages that determine which group of humans succeeds or fails versus another. Those that have the steel, guns, and bad germs win. Although this helps to explain many regional differences of the last few thousand years, it does not address the macro trends that seem to have affected all cultures, including China and the Americas, as they collectively slipped into the last worldwide dark age. The cyclical Great Year model overlays and augments Diamond’s observations with a reason for the widespread downturn. It implies that it is not only the geography and environment on Earth that determines a people’s relative success but also the geography and environment of Earth in space that affects humanity on a macroscopic scale. Just as small celestial motions dramatically affect life over the short term, so it appears that large celestial motions color life over the long term, resulting in the seasons of a Great Year.

Understanding that consciousness may indeed rise and fall with the motions of the heavens gives meaning to ancient myth and folklore and puts anomalous cultures and artifacts, such as the Antikythera device and the Babylon battery, into a historical context that makes sense. It also speaks to why so many ancient cultures appear to have been fascinated with the stars and provides us with a workable paradigm in which to understand history. It could also help us identify the forces that propelled the Renaissance and that may be accelerating consciousness in our current era. Myth and folklore, the scientific language of yore, provide a deeper look at consciousness throughout the ages.

An Ancient Look at the Future

The Greek historian Hesiod spoke of the wonderful nature of the last golden age, when “peace and plenty” abounded, and Hopi myths tell us of cities at the bottom of the sea. Ancient peoples typically broke the great cycle into an ascending and descending phase, each with four periods. According to Vedic scriptures, when the autumnal equinox moves from Virgo to Aries, humanity moves through the ascending Kali, Dwapara, Treta, and Satya yugas, or eons, before slowly declining in reverse order as the equinox completes its journey (the Satya Yuga marks a golden era). The Greeks and other early Mediterranean civilizations described similar periods and labeled them the Iron, Bronze, Silver, and Golden ages. The ancient Maya and Hopi used names such as “worlds” and “suns” and numbered them to identify specific epochs.

Whatever language is used, the concept is the same. In his book, The Holy Science (1894), Sri Yukteswar explains that when our solar system is at a point farthest from its companion star, humanity’s consciousness is at its lowest point (which last occurred around 500 AD), and when the sun is at its closest point (which next occurs in 12,500 AD), consciousness reaches its highest point in this cycle. These celestial points are located at the intersection of the autumnal equinox sun and one of the zodiac’s twelve constellations – the celestial clock. When the AE sun is in Aries, which is almost always placed in the twelve o’clock position of the zodiac, the Earth is in the best possible stellar environment, making it easy for many people to experience an awakened state of consciousness. When the AE sun is in the constellation Libra, conditions are at their worst, and a dark age, a period of deluded consciousness, prevails.

Presently, we are just a few hundred years into the ascending age, crossing over from what the Greeks would call the Age of Man (Iron) to the Age of the Hero (Bronze) – yet still very far from the Age of the Demigods (Silver) and the Age of the Gods (Gold), which are utterly inconceivable to us at this time.

Caption: The two equinoxes act as markers on the
face of the celestial clock. The ancients used the
autumnal equinox (AE) as the hour hand of the ages,
with 500 AD as the low point. This then indicates
that we are just waking up from the dark ages of the
last few hundred years.

This means we are now awakening from a time when individual consciousness perceived itself as purely a physical form, living in a strictly physical universe, to a time when we begin to see ourselves and the universe as more transparent and mostly made up of subtle energy. This began with the discoveries of the Renaissance (principles of electricity, laws of gravitation, microscopes, telescopes, and other inventions that expanded our awareness) and has accelerated since with the emergence of quantum physics, which shows us that matter and energy are interchangeable and proves Einstein’s concepts that even time and space are relative. In short, we are back on the upswing, just beginning to “re-member” ourselves as pure consciousness living in a world of undreamed of possibilities.

According to Paramahansa Yogananda, author of Autobiography of a Yogi, by the year 4100 AD (when we cross into the Treta Yuga proper), “telepathy and clairvoyance will once again be common knowledge.” It may seem far-fetched, but according to myth and folklore, there was such a time on Earth before, in about 3100 BC, the last Treta Yuga. Genesis would designate the Treta Yuga the pre-Babel age, when mankind communed freely with nature before God “confused the tongues.”

People often forget what the world was like just five hundred years ago, when every nation was at war, plagues and poverty decimated large populations, lifespans were half what they are today, individual rights were nonexistent, and justice was doled out through torture, inquisition, or burning at the stake. Yes, the world still has problems, but consciousness and awareness are expanding rapidly, manifesting in many ways; in the U.S. alone, millions of people are meditating, doing yoga, and using “nontraditional” healing practices to maintain their well being. From the perspective of technology, many believe we are now approaching the “point of singularity” Ray Kurzweil explored in his book The Singularity Is Near – an acceleration of intelligence which will blur the distinction between man and machine. But it is so much more. Can there be any doubt that improvements across all areas of society over the next five hundred years will be off the charts compared to those of the last five hundred?

Some advocates and astronomers use the vernal equinox (VE), which is now in Pisces at the “dawning of the age of Aquarius,” to tell precessional time. Thus, there is a kernel of truth in the popular 1960s song “Aquarius.” Other cultures used the solstices, which would be a line drawn perpendicular to that of the equinoxes. Presently, the winter solstice intersects the Galactic Center in Sagittarius. Because this happens in the precessional cycle within just a decade on either side of 2012 (the Mayan calendar end date), Mesoamerican scholar John Major Jenkins believes this culture used it to delineate a “new time,” such as a quickening or spring in a Great Year. Whatever solar marker is used (equinox or solstice), the celestial clock is a simple way to tell time within a Great Year. Its importance can be seen in the system of time we use to this day: 24 hours in a day, with 12 hours of ascending light, a.m., and 12 hours of descending light, p.m. It is a perfect microcosm of a Great Year, with its 24,000 years, 12,000 ascending and 12,000 descending.

The First Days of Spring

A deeper message than telling time in a Great Year is recognizing that there is a grand cycle to life that affects us all. Having lost this knowledge, we are a society that has lost an understanding of its place in cosmic history. Like an individual with amnesia, we harbor a deep angst about the future. But when we remember our rich and beautiful history, we rediscover our incredible potential and begin to see and act with clarity. The current time is akin to the last days of winter — things are thawing out and something wonderful is about to happen! All the flowers do not bloom on spring’s first day; nonetheless, understanding our place in the Great Year assures us that it will soon be brighter and more beautiful than we have dared to imagine. Our ancestors tell us so.

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  • Anonymous Icon

    DanaLynneAndersen Mar 09, 2011

    Walter this is great. I especially appreciated the first few paragraphs that made the celestial motions so intuitively clear. I also appreciated the illuminating phrase 'waxing and waning stellar fields'.
    It's wonderful to see you connecting with IONS.

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    carallel Mar 09, 2011

    Thank you. Your article is so informative. It's a breath of fresh air. The celestial outlook truly is a more holistic way to view time. Little blocks on a calendar seem an unreality and a study in contrast.

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    dianeenglish Mar 09, 2011

    Thank you Walter! I've heard you many times on internet radio interviews and was enthralled with your views. You've made our history so clear and given us such a deep understanding of our place within the Cosmos.

  • Anonymous Icon

    Bardo Mar 09, 2011

    This is my first exposure to you and your group, and it is fascinating. I am interested to know how we could account for the near total loss of knowledge about the last ages. What drives the civilizations into literal dust, with only the scantest evidence of their real luminosity? And during the next down cycle, will we lose all knowledge of the coming golden age? Will we be able to preserve the evidence better this time around, or will mankind experience another near black-out?

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    stevew Mar 09, 2011

    The publication of an article like this in Noetic Now only serves to bring IONS into discredit.

    Cruttenden writes:

    The standard theory of precession says it is principally the Moon’s
    gravity acting upon the oblate Earth that must be the cause of Earth’s
    changing orientation to inertial space, a.k.a. “precession.” However,
    this theory was developed before astronomers learned the solar system
    could move and has now been found by the International Astronomical
    Union to be “inconsistent with dynamical theory.” Ancient oriental
    astronomy teaches that an equinox slowly moving or “precessing” through
    the zodiac’s twelve constellations is simply due to the motion of the
    sun curving through space around another star, which changes our
    viewpoint of the stars from Earth. At the Binary Research Institute, we
    have modeled a moving solar system and found it does indeed better
    produce the precession observable, while resolving a number of solar
    system anomalies. This strongly suggests the ancient explanation may be
    the most plausible, even though astronomers have not yet discovered a
    companion star to Earth’s Sun.

    The first part of this paragraph is simply dishonest. Here is the URL
    for the resolution by the International Astronomical Union:
    If you read the resolution, it confirms that it *is* principally the Moon’s
    gravity acting upon the oblate Earth that must be the cause of Earth’s
    changing orientation to inertial space, a.k.a. “precession.” But it
    points out that there are other secondary effects that need to be taken
    into account, mainly that the gravitational attraction of the planets
    make a significant contribution to the motion of the Earth’s equator,
    and it proposes to adopt a refined model the P03 precession theory, of
    N. Capitaine et al.,
    Expressions for IAU 2000 precession quantities,
    Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 412 (2003), pp. 567-586.

    The final conclusion, that the "ancient explanation" that the earth
    rotates around another star is the most plausible, "even though
    astronomers have not yet discovered a companion star to Earth’s Sun"
    is ludicrous. Where would this star be? By way of comparison, Alpha
    Centauri, the closest observed star, has a mass approximately 1.1 times
    the mass of the Sun, whose mass is approximately 333,000 times the mass
    of the Earth, and is approximately 4.3 light years from the Sun, or
    approximately 275,000 times the Earth's distance from the Sun.
    Remembering the inverse square law for the force of gravitational
    attraction, the gravitational effect of Alpha Centauri on the Sun is
    (1.1 x 333000)/275000^2 = .000005 (approximately 1/200,000) of the
    Earth's gravitational effect on the Sun. So if the Sun were orbiting
    around another star, that would have to be a huge star much closer to
    the Sun, and would have been impossible to miss in literally millennia of
    careful astronomical observation.

  • Joseph Smith Mar 09, 2011

    It is amazing that this article elaborates in more detail what I'm blogging on

    Time is cyclic; life is cyclic. There are dark ages and golden ages. We are now leaving a dark age, the orthodoxy intent on keeping itself empowered, it's the same old story. The empowered fight to hold onto their power, "for the good of all."

    We are created to be self-goverened. The U.S. Constitution was written to protect the inalienable rights of America's citizens. The othodoxy has been fighting ever since the Age of Pisces arrived to rob the individual, and now nearing its end, is in a death struggle.

    The Age of Aquarius is an age of brotherhood and fraternity.

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    ransie Mar 10, 2011

    Walter this is great!! A perfect way of conveying complicated theories to a layman.

  • Walter Cruttenden Mar 11, 2011

    While it is true that astronomy has not yet found a partner to our Sun, most stars do have companions and there is still much to learn about our stellar neighborhood. In fact, Mike Brown, Professor of Astronomy at Caltech, winner of the Feynman prize and discoverer of Sedna, has stated, “Sedna shouldn’t be there. There is no way to put Sedna where it is…”. Independently, Professors Whitmire and Matesse and other credible astronomers have written papers proposing a companion. It is interesting to note that Sedna’s periodicity of 12,000 years is in ideal gravitational resonance (2:1) with the hypothetical companion, who’s 24,000 year periodicity was described long before Sedna’s discovery.

    Not knowing the solar system could move Newton explained the sun’s changing position by assuming lunisolar forces wobbled the earth; the lunisolar theory. But Newton ‘s equations did not work. They were supposedly “fixed” many times over the years by physicists who added inputs for everything from the inner and outer planets to asteroids and changes in the earth’s atmosphere – all in an effort to make the equation’s output match the changing precession observable. With all the patches and repairs the equation now has almost 1400 terms! In comparison a moving solar system model, based on Kepler’s laws and the orbit parameters put forth by Sri Yukteswar in 1894, has a fraction of the terms and has proven to be 41x more accurate in predicting the changing rate of precession (seen as the sun’s annual motion across the stellar background) over the last 100 years.

    An accelerating solar system also appears to neatly explain a number of solar system oddities, including the steady increase in the rate of precession, the sun’s apparent lack of angular momentum relative to the planets, and quite possibly, the anomalous acceleration of numerous spacecraft flybys.

    But stevew is right. It is exceedingly difficult to believe that astronomers may have missed something. Then again maybe we aren’t looking at things the right way. Dark Age astronomers could not see the earth move and thus stuck to the geocentric system for over a thousand years. Today’s astronomers do not see the solar system move and believe all changes in earth orientation must be the result of local gravitational effects.

    E pur si muove!

    Topics herein are discussed in greater detail in the paper: Earth Orientation: Does Solar System Motion Matter, or elsewhere on the BRI website.

  • Anonymous Icon

    EthanT Mar 14, 2011

    I thought the first two paragraphs in this article were interesting, in that they provided a neat way to extend our insight into just how our consciousness might be tied to the cosmos.

    On another note, astronomers today do see the solar system moving. Everything is in motion with respect to everything else. Or, as Einstein said, there is no absolute frame of reference, or no frame that is at "absolute rest". Our solar system is located on a galactic arm (Orion/Cygnus Arm) that orbits the galactic center roughly every 250 million years, and the galaxy itself is in motion through the Universe.

    However, a (luminous) companion star that has been overlooked is hard to imagine.

  • Walter Cruttenden Mar 14, 2011

    There are non-luminous categories worth consideration (brown dwarf, blackhole, etc.) and yes, astronomers acknowledge solar system (ss) revolution within the galaxy, which happens to equate to about .005” p/y (360 degrees/~240 million years), but what we actually observe is over 50” p/y of motion relative to the VLBI reference points. Because all of this is attributed to classical precession (local dynamics) ss motion is constrained to zero! Some say ss motion is too small to matter and therefore it does not have to be accounted for, but this motion and any other unidentified motions, may only appear too small because the entire observable has already been allocated away (to one lunisolar theory). It is a circular argument and should be questioned on that basis but there is also new evidence that demands a larger explanation. See "The Spacecraft Flyby Mystery" - Is There a New Physics Waiting to be Discovered?:

    Given the fact that the anomalous accelerations occur in unbounded spacecraft, and that it looks a lot like precession (Anderson’s suspicion that there may be an issue with the earth’s rotation), it is possible that our ss is accelerating, moving from apoapsis to periapsis around the center of gravity producing a gradual change in orientation. This means that what we call precession is not wholly an artifact of a wobbling earth but may be largely the observable of ss motion. In fact, we used this moving ss model to predict that Gravity Probe B would find one or more large unknown signals. That is exactly what happened and NASA withdrew funding, rating the project an “F”.

    If the ss were curving through space (the observable would be indistinguishable from precession), then in addition to the earth’s rotation and revolution we would have to account for ss motion around the center of mass. The fact that the Messenger spacecraft did not show this effect may hint that the direction of the mass is below the ss plane (Messenger’s exit). This might also explain the incline of Plutos’ orbit as well as Sedna’s strange orbit (which is much farther out but similar in incline to Pluto). At least everything seems to point that way – no pun intended. While no one knows for certain what causes the anomalous accelerations, ss motion is one plausible answer that does not require new physics. It needs to be fairly evaluated.

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    DanielaSoraya Mar 14, 2011

    I am so happy I read this today! It truly brought me back to my love of Philosophy and reminded me of love, justice and beauty. It brought me back to the beauty that lies beyond touch, of which can no loner be opined but simply, is...maybe their is something to the alignment of constellations and stars that defies sight or position. I often neglect consciousness as an evolutionary process. Humans are progressive in thought...leading us all to the light. I am so happy I read this article this evening. I am a lover of Plato and what he has done, thank you for reminding me.

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    HarryShan Mar 16, 2011

    I don't frequently read articles on IONS but I am a bit surprised to read something that seems to take a lot of shortcuts on science, history and consistent thinking. I am not a specialist in neither science nor history but I read a lot and have lived on several continents. I thus try to keep an open mind as much as a critical one.

    For example, you define our era with a pinch of disdain as being of "materialistic rationality". That is quite overlooking vast sectors of population around the world whose culture and education are anchored in one religion or another. The world is not made of one worldview, it's made of many. The funny thing is your article wants to rest on several possible scientific (thus rational) sources and suggests that those golden ages would be the result of very materialistic causes indeed (a far orbiting star and its EM influence).

    Now, I'm not against the idea of a hidden companion star. Why not ? Astronomy is a fast moving field of science and widens the range of possibilities everyday. And since you fancy resting on scientific reasoning, let's go down this way and try to explore the idea.
    First, if the solar system is literally orbiting another star (meaning the center of gravity is located inside this other star), that means this star has to be way bigger than ours. Could we assume that our astronomers missed it ? Maybe.
    Second possibility, the two stars are of the same family size as to locate the center of gravity somewhere in between the two stars. That would create a noticeable wobble effect in the position of our sun relative to, for instance, nearby stars. Admittedly a slow wobble effect but still, it would be measurable. And maybe it's what you associate to your explanation of the precessions.
    Third scenario, the hidden star is smaller than our sun and is actually orbiting around us.
    Next, you are suggesting that the earth would be subject to the EM radiation of this star. To have as much effect as the sun for instance, and understanding this star would be quite far, it would need to emit much more EM radiation than the sun itself. Again, would our astronomers have missed such a bright spot (even in the non-visible spectrum)? Why not? Even so, you'd have to take into account not only Earth's magnetosphere impact on EM radiation, but the sun's as well, which incidentally has uneven cycles of tens, hundreds and thousands of years. You'd also have to take into account the very likely cycles of EM radiation of the hidden star, uneven as well.
    Combining all of these variables, it's hard to see how it would regularly match the precessions.
    We could go on and on imagining all the possible scenarii. All of this to say that if you're exploring this idea from a thorough scientific point of view, it leads to much more uncertainties than certainties.(following in the next comment)

  • Anonymous Icon

    HarryShan Mar 16, 2011

    It doesn't dismiss the idea of a hidden star but doesn't make a strong point for its influence on human history, which leads me to the so-called historical perpsective.

    First of all, History defines itself as anything that has been related, recounted and thus written. Prior to that is called Prehistory. Incidentally, anything that falls into the prehistorical time is subject to a lot of interpretation and debate. It's certainly sane to acknowledge that consciousness probably
    didn't evlove in a linear ascending pattern, although in this context, the term intelligence is more often used in the literature than consciousness.
    Now, the assumption that civilizations declined, based on the fact that architectural,scientific and artistic artifacts were lost overtime, is a very "materialistic rational" one. Maybe some didn't decline, maybe they evolved into something else. Is material and technological evidence the only proof of expansion of consciousness? The declining civilization idea should be stated as a possibility not a certainty, and applied cautiously to every instance of civilization.
    In the same way, the assumption that the presence of technical and artistic production as well as the lack of weaponry is a sign of a peaceful culture is a quick jump to conclusion. Lack of evidence is not evidence of lack. Maybe it was peaceful, maybe it wasn't. In these matters, questions lead to other questions and not straightforward answers.

    You sweep across large pans of history and, I guess, prehistory without a precise timeline. It's hard to understand what you call the dark ages. It seems to me that often what you'd call dark ages overlapped with golden ages during the same era but throughout different civilizations around the world. Our knowledge of historical eras is indeed changing all the time, and as an exemple, historians have, in the past ten years, revised their view on the medieval ages in Europe, and found that it showed much more enlightenment than we knew about.

    I'll stop here. You have to understand that it is hard to follow you on such shaky grounds.
    A star companion? Maybe. That would be an exciting discovery.
    A regular cycle of golden and dark ages influenced by a star? A very rational and mecanistical view of the world indeed, based on a lot of not so rational assertings.

  • Anonymous Icon

    HarryShan Mar 16, 2011

    Incidentally, there isn't 12 constellations in the zodiac, but 13. A frequent mistake made by astrologers amongst others.

  • Anonymous Icon

    Shankar Narayan Mar 16, 2011

    Firstly Thanks for sharing the treasure of your knowledge with us. I couldn't help but notice that this is similar to Ancient Hindu Cosmology.Here's the link

    Hope this helps you further in your work!

  • Anonymous Icon

    Shankar Narayan Mar 16, 2011

    thought the references to the yugas are minimal in the article and those interested in knowing more would have some reference regarding the same.

  • Walter Cruttenden Mar 16, 2011

    Hi Harry – You raise some thoughtful points. The article specs allowed only limited space so I would refer you to my book “Lost Star of Myth and Time”, which has about 300 pages and addresses most of your questions. We also hold annual conferences on this subject where various authors, professors and scientists from physicists and geologists to astronomers and anthropologists address the points in detail. The 7th annual Conference on Precession and Ancient Knowledge will be held this fall in Sedona, if you are interested. And there is a podcast series on the subject “The Cosmic Influence” (on Apple iTunes) where we interview some of the scientists and authors that speak to the subject in a lighter style.

    Alas, when we are back in the telepathic clairvoyant era none of this material will be that material! : )

  • Anonymous Icon

    seekingawareness2011 Mar 18, 2011

    I believe it important to remember that, in our search for cosmic connections, words are inefficient, at beat, and outright enemies, at worst. As with the 'holy spirit' in christian philosophy, this is a 'person to person' phenomenon.

  • abdul khan Mar 23, 2011

    I agree with Shankar this has been discussed in Hindu literature, but you have updated with modern scientific evidence. When this lnowledge was first given to me by my father, I could not digest it. Ever since most of the Indian work has been accepted, look for example the rest of the material on IONS-If Shankar would enlighten us there is The Latent Light Cylture in Tinnevelly who were offerring courses in mental sciences and finer forces way back in 1929 while rest of the world was in war! So with open mind we must study the ancient cultures, 2012 happes or not. The universe shall be there in 2013.

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    LoriL Mar 23, 2011

    Wow! Great stuff. It will take several readings and many hours of contemplating to digest it all.

    The only problem that I have is that our planet, Earth, is consistently spelled earth. The planet Pluto is acknowledged as a proper noun, but not our own planet. Please, please, please, if we are going to live here, let's give our home the respect it deserves.


  • Anonymous Icon

    Shankar Narayan Mar 23, 2011

    @ Asamadkhan: There are multiple links available online related to the yugas (and related time scales) This is one of those

    Hope this clears some of the questions.

  • abdul khan Mar 27, 2011

    Thanks Shankar. The Stephen site is wonderful, what I was refering to was this other group I have come to the conclusion that just like all of us share the same DNA, different knowledge-forms called the religions now need to do some data mining from their Holy Text and come to common points to prepare the mother Earth for next cycle through positive common thought.

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    Aldebaran Mar 29, 2011

    Great article! I thoroughly enjoyed reading it. Lots to think about.

  • Walter Cruttenden Mar 29, 2011

    The major cycles of night and day, the seasons, and the rise and fall of civilization, find their foundation in observable celestial motions.

    Manu’s yugas fit the rate at which we see the stars move retrograde across the sky (precession) and make perfect sense of myth and folklore. The Dark Age error of multiplication by divine years, that makes the yugas seem absurdly long, decoupled our history from the heavens - but it will not stand the test of time - astronomy is too exact.

    For the full story read Sri Yukteswar’s epoch changing book, The Holy Science.

  • Anonymous Icon

    car123 Apr 01, 2011

    This article was really interesting and has made me open my mind alot to our capabilities...... but its a depressing thought to know we will never see our true potential for another 10,000,000 years.

  • Anonymous Icon

    HarryShan Apr 02, 2011

    Yes, like you said Walter, astronomy is too exact. So exact that the precession is a 25,800 year cycle, and not "roughly 24,000". And so exact again that the sun traces out a path through 13 constellations and not 12. Constellations, which by the way,are just a creation by humans to help them recognize star patterns in the sky. We could have made up 8, 14, or 20 constellations in the zodiac just as well. There is nothing mechanical in that. Technically, the term "precession of the equinox" is inaccurate, there are two equinox points, so at best you have to talk about the precession of the equinoxes.
    Any serious historian will tell you that our planet history doesn't showglobal eras of dark and golden ages, when some regions seem to decline, other regions of the world are flourishing during the same time. Should I go on?Many people that you refer to don't have a lot of credentials in the scientific arena. For instance, someone like John Major Jenkins is part of a group of self-appointed 2012 prophets and millenarists.
    So, the whole binary 12h of day / 12h of night, 12,000 ascending / 12,000 descending, golden ages / dark ages theory doesn't rest on anything but a lot of speculations,shortcuts, generalizations, simplistic views and twisted facts of science, all to match and support a personal belief. There is
    nothing wrong with expressing your beliefs, and I would encourage you to do so, for the sake of freedom of expression, but then do it as such and not in the disguise of science.
    I fear that this kind of article doesn't help other researchers at IONS who try to combine in an authentic and open-minded way intuition, self-knowledge and science, and not new age musings and pseudo-science. And since you referred me to your book and a costly conference, I, in turn, will refer you to the free IONS Vision and Mission Statement and encourage you to meditate on it.

  • Walter Cruttenden Apr 02, 2011

    Hi Car – There is nothing to stop us from reaching our true potential now. It might be harder to see in the night than the day or harder to stay warm in the winter than the summer, but this does not mean we have to walk around blind and cold. The saints and sages of all religions teach us we can have a golden age consciousness now in spite of the worldly weather. Besides, sunrises are fun too!

  • Walter Cruttenden Apr 03, 2011

    Hi Harry (part one response)

    Thank you, good points. The IONS vision is dear to my heart. I love the line, “We take inspiration from the great discoveries of human history that have been sourced from insight and intuition and that have harnessed reason and logic for their outer expression.” This speaks to the very core of our work at the Binary Research Institute and it is no doubt why I was asked by the editor to submit an article. But I understand your skepticism. Our findings do challenge the accepted paradigm.

    It is only after years of rigorous examination of precession mechanics, tested with mathematical models, that we find the widely accepted theory of lunisolar precession to be deeply flawed. It is based on a static solar system model when in fact our solar system is moving. Not that we can blame Copernicus or Newton, they were unaware the sun could move. But we now have the data to rework the theory, and it has vast implications because it implies the Ancients were correct, there is a basis for a cycle. Their prescient statements, through myth and folklore that history (consciousness) rises and falls with the motions of the heavens (precession), demands we reexamine our simple notions of the past. There is an increasing body of evidence of advanced cultures around the world that operated in harmony with the earth long before the Dark Age wiped out most of these memories. Our fascination with shiny gadgets nowadays may cause us to view them as primitive but are we so certain? It is only by looking at our science and histories with an open mind that we have any chance to re-member the lost ancestral wisdom. Fortunately, the wind is at our back and many brave scientists are challenging the vestiges of myopic dark-age thinking that still linger in our sciences today. While the term new age is too abused to use it is hard to deny that some awakening is at hand.

    Re the number of constellations: We agree. If you want to remake the ancient zodiac and add in Ophiuchus you could also add Bootes, Coma Berenices, Eridanus, and Leo Minor (there are well within Pluto’s incline), or you might take out Scorpius, as it represents such a small slice. But just as the Ancients gave us a system of time with twelve numbers on the dial (and we do not change that), so should we be careful before throwing out a zodiac with twelve constellations that has been handed down for thousands of years. Like the numbers on the clock these represent markers in time to tell us where we stand in the day, year or Great Year. And yes you can use either equinox or solstice, or put four hands on a clock if you wish, but one will suffice. (continued)

  • Walter Cruttenden Apr 03, 2011

    Harry (part two response)

    Re precession periodicity: Not realizing that the stars currently moving across the sky at about 50.3” p/y (the current precession rate) is actually the observable of a solar system in motion, few astronomers have thought to correct for Kepler’s laws. Consequently, most assume the present rate is static and extrapolate a period without eccentricity and thus arrive at a number close to the textbook number you have stated. But the world is not flat, and the solar system is not static, so let us hope the proponents of the lunisolar precession theory come to their senses quicker than Galileo’s inquisitors. If so, they will see an overwhelming body of evidence that a moving solar system model that adheres to Kepler’s laws with an average of 54”p/y and apoapsis at about 500AD (exactly as given by the Indian Astronomer Sri Yukteswar in 1894) proves to be 41 times more accurate than Simon Newcomb’s 1897 precession equation in predicting changes in the precession rate over the last 100 years (1900 to 2000). As you know 54” p/y equates to an orbit period of 24,000 years (1,296,000”/24,000y=54”p/y), thus the Ancients were right. As amazing as it is, it appears our daily system of time really is a nearly perfect microcosm of the Great Year.

    Newton’s lunisolar precession equation never worked. It has been corrected and modified hundreds of times resulting in a modern precession nutation equation that as of the year 2000 has almost 1400 terms (mostly inputs added over the years to try to make the equation result match the observable precession rate). It is no better than an accounting gimmick. In fact, since 2000 the International Astronomical Union came to the conclusion (IAU PO3) that the precession equation is “not consistent with dynamical theory”. In layman terms, “it’s broken”. Science needs a better precession theory but paradigms are slow to change. Considering the fact a moving solar system model better explains all the precession observables, does so with a fraction of the terms, and is historically 41 times more accurate, doesn’t Occam’s Razor demand it? I am happy to provide you with mathematical models and a lot more data through a more appropriate forum if you wish.

    Harry, thank you for bringing these issues up, they are important. I know it seems incredible, but in this case, it appears the Ancients have one on us.

    Warm Regards


  • Anonymous Icon

    Shankar Narayan Apr 05, 2011

    @Abdul Khan: True.Every Religion is but a different path to the same destination.

  • Anonymous Icon

    LoriTompkins Apr 06, 2011

    I am glad to see people discussing cycles of time & how orienting in cycles of time can be helpful to our understanding/vision of our individual & collective self. It is definitely time for mankind to become more aware of the 360° journey through time/space, & how it has shown up in religions/myths throughout the ages.

    I am partial to the idea that the Hindu Yuga measure 432,000 has been misunderstood for quite sometime, i.e. has NOT been measured in terms of the Precession of the Equinoxes. People typically think of this measure in terms of years, but don't frequently notice that 432,000" of celestial arc actually equals ONE THIRD of the 360° circle which can correspond to the 360° Precession. I am also partial to the idea that just as the 360° circle is macrocosm of the circle of 9 & 12, that it useful to measure the 360° Precession in those terms as well. So 12 x 2160 years would come to 25,920 years (2+5+9+2+0 = 18 = 1+8 = 9)... 2160 also 'happens' to be the diameter of the moon in miles, as 432,000 is the radius of the Sun in miles.

    These ideas are more eloquently flushed out in 'The Gnostic Circle' by Patrizia Norelli-Bachelet. Her 'Map of the Manifestations' ( shows a 77,760 year cycle (3 Precessional Cycles) which may be of interest to those interested in understanding evolution in cycles of time. Her feeling (backed up with convincing evidence) is that we entered into the Age of Aquarius in 1926 CE; and that the Age of Capricorn represents the coming Golden Age, because in the journey through the Zodiac, as recorded in the Vedas, it is the 10th sign of Capricorn that signifies the Victory of Consciousness (not Aries), i.e. when consciousness arrives at the mountaintop/360° perspective/heights of consciousness. 0° Capricorn, in term of the 360°/24 hour rotation of the Earth, is high NOON, when 'the Sun casts no shadows'. That LIGHT w/no shadow is a symbol of the highest consciousness/golden age.

    Ms. Norelli-Bachelet also discusses our placement within a larger macro cycle of 12 Precessional Cycles (12 x 25,920 years = 311,040 years). In that picture, each Precession is equivalent to a month/zodiac sign, and she places us in the 9th month, akin to the 9th month of a pregnancy ... labor pains & all.

    I just wrote a couple of articles about the zodiac and the 9 number system as being a way of preserving knowledge of the 360° structure of time and space, as well as knowledge of our place in the Precessional cycle on my yoga/cosmology blog. One is called: 'Noah's Ark, the Zodiac, the 0/9 Number System' & 'The Preservation of Knowledge' and the other is 'Cataclysms and the Preservation of Knowledge'. I think these will be a good read for those interested in this subject matter.

    Thanks for bringing up this conversation Walter.

  • Anonymous Icon

    LoriTompkins Apr 10, 2011

    Hi again. I sent along this article/link to Ms. Norelli-Bachelet (Thea) whom I mentioned above and she sent a response/criticism that seems worth 'airing'. She wrote:

    ... [Walter's] article is a very good example of the problems I have been highlighting in my calendar responses. []
    "He is trapped in the external consciousness. There is no inner 'point', no centre from where he observes the INNER UNIVERSE. The whole key to these initiatic matters lies there: the Inner Universe. You have studies my work. It is an example of the exploration in the universe we carry within. That is where all true Seeing must be done. This chap does not do that at all. Therefore, he flits back and forth, here and there across continents, civilisations. But it is all inapplicable; inapplicable because of that centreless position. He dopes make a case for the Precession and the astrological ages, but there is no possibility of application today.
    "The author advocates the projection into the constellations constantly. As usually happens, there is no proper distinction made between sidereal and tropical. The understanding of these initiatic matters lies there. And it is not that the astrological ages are marked out in the constellations. It is simply that the circle of 12 is PROJECTED outward to form a zodiac of the same 30 degrees, within which the Ascendant of the Earth can be traced. That is what the passage we know of as the astrological ages are: it is the circle the Earth traces onto that projection sphere of 12 by the equatorial plane. For all practical purposes, this is the Earth's ascendant.
    "Science has totally befuddled astrologers. They have lost contact with the inner universe and hence they have come to rely on 'observation' of the surrounding heavens, without realising that this is not the way. One has to find that inner Point and through that Point, as if it were a wormhole, one plunges within to the inner spaces where the Harmony is found. But of course this would require a very special process; not many are willing and able to undertake this strenuous Yoga. Thea"

  • Walter Cruttenden Apr 12, 2011

    A fellow kriya yogi,Tara Mata, spoke of the correct calculation of the cycle. Here is an excerpt from her 1932 article "Astrological World Ages":

    This accurate method of measuring time was current in India for thousands of years, up to about 700 B.C. At that time a colossal mistake crept into the Hindu almanacs and has been blindly perpetrated ever since. Reference to Diagram (1), which accompanied last month's article, will show that the year 702 B.C., marked the completion of Dwapara Yuga, and the beginning of Kali Yuga, of the Descending Arc.

    The Maharaja Judhisthir, who began to reign In India during the latter years of the Dwapara era, voluntarily gave up his throne to his grandson, Raja Pariksht, shortly before the start of the Kali Yuga and retired with all the wise men of his court to a religious retreat In the Himalaya Mountains. Thus, there were none left, at the grandson's court, sufficiently versed in the ancient wisdom, to calculate the Ages correctly. So, when the last year of the 2,400 year period of Dwapara Yuga passed away, and the first year of the 1,200 year Kali Yuga dark Age had arrived, the latter was numbered as the year 2401 instead of year 1 of Kali Yuga. In 498 A.D., when the 1,200 year period of Kali Yuga of the Descending Arc had been completed and the first year of Kali Yuga of the Ascending Arc began, the latter was designated in the Hindu almanacs, as the year 3601 instead of year 1 of Kali Yuga of the Ascending Arc.


    However, as the wise men of that period were well aware, from conditions in India and the world generally, that mankind was In Kali Yuga, the dark Iron Age of Necessity, as described in the prophecies in the Mahabharata, their sacred teachings, and as they also knew that, according to these same scriptures, the age of Kali was fixed at 1,200 years only, they fancied, by way of reconciliation between the scriptures and their current almanacs, that the 1,200 years of Kali were not the ordinary solar years of our earth, but "Divine" years of the gods, consisting of 12 Divine months of 30 Divine days. Each of these Divine days was supposed to be equal in length to one of our solar years.

    Thus, the Sanskrit scholars of Kali Yuga, such as Kullu Bhatta, explained away the discrepancies in their almanacs, saying that the 1,200 years allotted by the ancients for the duration of one Kali Yuga, were equal (1,200 X 360) to 432,000 solar years of our earth, and that, In 498 A.D., 3600 years of this long Kali Yuga had passed away. Thus the mistaken calculation gained firmer ground in Hindu chronology, and today the almanacs used in India state that the present year is the 5,034th of Kali Yuga, of which 426,966 years still remain. (cont in next post)

  • Walter Cruttenden Apr 12, 2011


    By thus expanding the 1,200 year period into 432,000 solar years, the Kali Yuga teachers entirely lost sight of the connection of the Yugas with the 24,000 year Equinoctial Cycle, and the key to the correct calculation of the World Ages was lost. A modest 24,000 year period is well within the grasp both of the human mind and historical annals and prehistoric records, but who can hope to trace the characteristic outlines of the two sets of four Yugas in the affairs of mankind for a period of 8,640,000 years (24,000 X 360)?

    No such difficulty faces us if we seek the evidence of the various World Ages in a 24,000 year cycle, and enough is known of the history of mankind for the past 7,000 years (which roughly covers our historical period) to enable us to clearly trace the distinctive influence on world events of the various Yugas which has, either completely or partially, run their course during that 7,000 year space.


    The erroneous computations of the Four Ages, given out by the Kali Yuga scholars when they discovered their chronology was not in keeping with the rules laid down by the ancient rishis, are as follows:

    Satya Yuga 4,800 X 360 = 1,728,000
    Treta Yuga 3,600 X 360 = 1,296,000
    Dwapara Yuga 2,400 X 360 = 864,000
    Kali Yuga 1,200 X 360 = 432,000
    Total Mahayuga in Solar Years = 4,320,000

    No justification exists in the Mahabharata, or in the teachings of Manu,. for this transformation of solar years into "Divine" years in reference to the four Ages of the Equinoctial Cycle, yet these mistaken expanded figures have been accepted, without due investigation, not only by the mathematicians who compile almanacs in present day India but also by writers of standard metaphysical and astrological textbooks. These authors have erected, on this shaky mathematical foundation, elaborate cosmological structures which will not stand the test of astronomical verification.

    The 12,000 year period, which loses its intrinsic significance when turned into 432,000 years, was known to all ancient civilizations as the half of an Equinoctial Cycle. The old Mazdeans (Magi of whom the modern Parsis are descendants) had a 12,000 year cycle, Zervan Daregho Hyadata ("Sovereign Time of the Long Period"). With the Greeks and their instructors, the Egyptians, the "Great Age" again referred only to the tropical sidereal year of the Equinoctial Cycle.

  • Anonymous Icon

    MrWizard Apr 17, 2011

    If you would like to understand the mechanics of the precession, the best explanation that I have heard to date is from Joseph Newman. Joseph Newman was famous back in the 70s and 80s for having invented the Joseph Newman motor. His book, "The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman" explains how the earth, moon, and the rest of the solar system sit in nested electromagnetic fields that influence the earth's electromagnetic field and angle of rotation. The multifaceted genius Walter Russell described it very similarly in his books in the early 1900s such as "The Universal One" and "The Russell Genero-Radiative Concept". Both Newman's and Russell's earlier works match extremely well the "Electric Universe" model being heavily supported today by Wal Thornhil at and

  • Walter Cruttenden May 22, 2011

    Mr. Wizard (like your name!)

    Recognizing that the rise and fall of the ages is a real phenomena, yet not realizing that what we call the precession observable (stars moving across sky at 50” p/y) is due to solar system motion, it is understandable why Newman, Russell and others would suggest a hypothesis to explain how a wobbling earth might cause electromagnetic field changes sufficient to produce epochal changes in consciousness. Indeed, the changing of the ages attached to the movement of the heavens, deeply ingrained in our mythologies, demands a logical explanation.

    It is well established that common celestial motions (rotation and revolution) cause the earth to be subjected to waxing and waning light, and produce significant inner and outer changes. But it is not recognized that a merely wobbling earth can produce such changes (as there is no obvious commensurate increase or decrease in light), nor does a careful analysis of lunisolar theory even confirm the wobbling earth hypothesis. If however, the observable of the stars slowly moving retrograde across the sky is simply the result of the solar system orbiting another star (as all BRI studies suggest), then we can be certain it would be accompanied by some sort of cycle, synchronous with that motion.

    Either way it is good to see that scientists are seeking a logical explanation for the cycle of the ages.

  • Anonymous Icon

    Bejoy Feb 10, 2012

    I was thinking in favour of luni solar wobble theory to explain the Precession of Equinox ( PoE ) and infact ended up with some more justification for the binary orbit.

    The standard definition of PoE says that equinox precesses westward thru the ecliptic and in a period of 25,920 years ( or assume 24,000 years ) will complete one cycle where it aligns itself with zero point Aries on the background.

    It follows that :

    In AD 2000, if equinox is occurring with Aries as the background, then in the next 6000 years ( 24000 / 4 ) , i.e in AD 8000, the equinox will be in Capricon.

    But in Capricon, the ecliptic is at the maximum obliquity and so the earth has a declination of -23 degrees. As I understand, equinox can only happen when the declination of the earth the Sun is zero. So how can equinox happen in Capricon when the oblique ecliptic at this point gives the earth a declination of -23 degrees ?

    One way to rule this situation out is to say that every year when the earth precesses 50 arc seconds, the ecliptic also undergoes a readjustment to that extent so as to make or maintain the declination zero.

    In short, both the celestial equator and the ecliptic have to readjust progressively to maintain a declination of zero so as to allow the equinox to precess 50 arc seconds.

    The PoE is attributed to 70% the moon ( I think so ) and 30% to the Sun, do you think that the moon ( the moon doesn't even come to 4% of the mass of the earth ) is capable enough to manoeuvre the earth to influence both the celestial equator and the ecliptic ? – especially when you know that celestial equator and the ecliptic are not in the same plane of action and how come the moon exert a force on the earth in 2 different planes of action ?

    But in reality, equinox precesses and we cannot tamper with this reality. So am compelled to tune in more with the orbital motion of the Sun.

    Crux of the above is that equinox can happen only at the intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic where the declination of the earth is zero. So for equinox to precess the point of intersection has to precess which can happen only when both the celestial equator and the oblique ecliptic are realigned. But equator and ecliptic are only imaginery curves and one cannot influence imagination. So for the intersection point to change, some synchronous force has to be exerted on the earth in 2 different planes of action. Is the moon capable to do so ?

    Please advise if am right here or have I overlooked any aspect


  • Anonymous Icon

    Bejoy Feb 11, 2012

    @ Lori

    your commetam partial to the idea that the Hindu Yuga measure 432,000 has been misunderstood for quite sometime, i.e. has NOT been measured in terms of the Precession of the Equinoxes.

    4,320,000,000 divided by 311,040,000,000 = 0.0139 degrees is exactly 50 arc seconds = value of PoE.

    The above numerical equivalence explicitly evident in the Hindu Puranas has always received a silent treatment.


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