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Deductive Reasoning v Inductive Reasoning

Posted Dec. 23, 2013 by mrmathew1963 in Open

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commented on Dec. 27, 2013
by dustproduction

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The reasoning process or processes we use determines the way we think & act so has everything to do with the way this world/reality is going to be. The two following extracts from the link below describes basically how the two main reasoning processes used today, inductive & deductive, differ from each other.

It did surprise me a little that deductive reasoning is vulnerable to error which has been exemplified by recent occurrences on IONS recently. I’ve pointed out certain errors of deductive reasoning & this article confirms such errors of deductive reasoning.

Extracts:
Inductive reasoning begins with specific details and observations — of natural occurrences or behavior, say — and uses them to arrive at a principle to explain them. What we now call the scientific method is largely inductive.

Deductive reasoning moves from the general to the specific. It uses logic to confirm something we already know to be true. Deduction is vulnerable to error at every step because it accepts the truth of the elements it uses to establish new truths.

http://birthstory.net/history/sir-francis-bacon/

It is funny because deductive reasoning only confirms what we already know therefore it is obvious we need inductive reasoning first up to give deductive reasoning something to evaluate. Most people who can only deductively reason have only memorised what is already known, it is impossible for them to think for themselves & come up with their own scientific method obviously. We must be careful here, just because we have memorised certain knowledge doesn’t make us smart & in fact if we all just memorised knowledge eventually we wouldn’t come up with anything new to evaluate, we would stop evolving it would seem & just become people who just deductively reason.

The following link also infers that deductive reasoning is limited & flawed.

http://www.livescience.com/21569-deduction-vs-induction.html

Extract: It's possible to come to a logical conclusion even if the generalization is not true. If the generalization is wrong, the conclusion may be logical, but it may also be untrue. For example, the argument, "All bald men are grandfathers. Harold is bald. Therefore, Harold is a grandfather," is valid logically but it is untrue because the original statement is false.

  • 10 Comments  
  • Anonymous Icon

    dustproduction Dec 27, 2013

    What is the source for your statements about cognitive bias?
    This is not something you yourself have tested so they must be an undisclosed reference.

    Similarly, what is the source for the conclusion that the brain only subscribes to a single form of reasoning?

    Scientists use both inductive and deductive reasoning to address scientific problems

    "The scientific method, requirement of physical evidence, falsification and, especially, willingness to modify OR EVEN REJECT long-held ideas that turn out to be wrong are hallmarks of science, and are what sets them apart from religious faith."

  • mrmathew1963 Dec 27, 2013

    How To Know: The Principles of Rational Inference

    http://rationalfuture.org/rationality.html

    Extract: Deduction and induction are the only ways to make rational inferences.

    Deductive reasoning started with ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC) but inductive reasoning started with Sir Francis Bacon's (1607AD)

    You will notice by reading the info in the link above that deductive & inductive reasoning are the only ways mentioned here to make rational inferences, it doesn’t mention abduction or any other reasoning process in relation to rational thinking as others have brought up here. We also take account here that, as mentioned before, deductive reasoning obviously has it’s flaws, I think I have proven, with assistance, how flawed deductive reasoning, used on it’s own, is in the last week or so. Deductive reasoning is also as old as ARISTOTLE, what was the progression of man between 384 BC to 1607? Now what was the scientific progression of man between 1607 & now?

    http://www.doffun.com/book_OCG/Appendix+E+Inductive+and+Deductive.pdf

    Extract: All the Western world in all dealings with concepts and the Eastern
    scientific world, have progressed only by Sir Francis Bacon's formulation
    of Inductive thinking in 1607 in England.

    Cognitive bias is interesting because it would seem people who only use deductive reasoning are more prone to cognitive biases than people who inductively reason because of the flaws within deductive reasoning to start with, they don’t seem to be able to see this within themselves because they are not inductively reasoning only deductively reasoning. I f we used deductive & inductive reasoning cognitive bias wouldn’t be a problem I believe. I also found it interesting when the link above showed the connection between deductive reasoning & religion.

  • Anonymous Icon

    dustproduction Dec 27, 2013

    What of the unconscious cognitive biases?
    You might at least look the concept up.
    You're still wanting to make it about "me."

  • mrmathew1963 Dec 26, 2013

    G'day Dusty

    You love to dog don't you, it's like a broken record. You have answered very few of my questions but you demand & dog me until I answer/comment on your delusional demands. Dog me all you like Dusty, you have obviously made yourself unworthy of any further attention from me. I have proven that your kind of reasoning is flawed & at times leads a person to deceive as you have done numerous times, you have my empathy & yes you are definitely the same bloke who got kicked off a few years ago or you’re his twin brother!!

  • Anonymous Icon

    dustproduction Dec 25, 2013

    And what of the unconscious cognitive biases? Tell us about them instead, first hand.

  • mrmathew1963 Dec 25, 2013

    G'day Dusty

    It is very obvious people who only deductively reason consciously are very defensive because of the flaws within this reasoning process & it is obvious how defensive you are as you have proven countless times.

    RE:"This is conjecture of the worse sort, especially when it has already been pointed out that it is not the only two types of reasoning."

    It is very obvious what you meant when you said worst conjecture here, you were relating to the fact that there are more than two types of reasoning & that I didn't bring this forth but of course I did within the links I supplied obviously. Stop deceiving please, you really have made this personal haven't you.

    You have dogged me on every topic I have brought forth even after I pleaded with you not too on one occasion however have I done the same to you? Who has obviously made it personal again?

  • Anonymous Icon

    dustproduction Dec 24, 2013

    Re: people who can only think deductively

    Conjecture in that that are not such people. The brain is not limited to only deduction in some individuals. You know better.
    And what of the unconscious cognitive biases? Tell us about them instead, first hand.

  • mrmathew1963 Dec 24, 2013

    G'day Dusty

    RE: "This is conjecture of the worse sort, especially when it has already been pointed out that it is not the only two types of reasoning."

    Quote: "The two following extracts from the link below describes basically how the two main reasoning processes used today,"

    Reread Dusty, it says two main reasoning process not only so how could this be the worse sort of conjecture, you are a dramatist aren't you & deceptive which comes with being a control freak.

    It is obvious you & NoetPoet are people who only deductively reason, again reread what is written here, both of youse fall into this category obviously & of course this doesn't take away how flawed deductive reasoning is on it's own. You both denounce anything that is not of deductive reasoning.

    If you bothered reading the links above you would have realised that adductive reasoning was mentioned as well but obviously you didn't so how can you be so brash within your remarks??

    RE:"Let's ignore such distractions and exhibit a less personal approach to discussion."

    So does this mean you won't be going off topic to dog me? I can't see that happening however it is obvious everyone but yourself has to do this, who made you the enforcer here?? How many times have you dogged & belittled other people because they were not deductively reasoning like you?? You don't like it when the shoe is on the other foot do you??

    Someone who comes to discussions like this already defensive will attack anyone who threatens there defences (ego), how many people have you done this too Dusty & how many people have you personally driven away because of your personal defensive attitude?? I've lost count myself only because others don't deductively reason like you. It takes more than one reasoning process to come up with a plausible answer but you seem to have no idea of this obviously. Try for once to work with others for a change but your ego just obviously won't allow you too & yes this is a psychological analysis & yes I am qualifies to make such observations.

  • Anonymous Icon

    dustproduction Dec 24, 2013

    Re: people who can only think deductively

    This is conjecture of the worse sort, especially when it has already been pointed out that it is not the only two types of reasoning. See abductive reasoning. (Abduction is a form of logical inference that goes from observation to a hypothesis that accounts for the reliable data and seeks to explain relevant evidence.)

    The comment regarding "my adversaries" is self flattery, indulgent, and seemingly paranoid.

    To others: Why is IONS a gathering place for conversation that is not issue oriented? This is not a contest. This commenter honestly does not see that self indulgent discussion is as ego driven as the comments or thinking that the commenter finds objectionable.

    Let's ignore such distractions and exhibit a less personal approach to discussion.

  • mrmathew1963 Dec 24, 2013

    After conversing with more highly intellectual people than I we actually came up with the assumption/idea that people who can only think deductively are also living in fairyland for the main reason they also think, as do some spiritually aware people, that their reasoning is the be & end all when it obviously isn't, in actual fact it is full of flaws without the help of other reasoning processes. It is quite obvious we shouldn't become fixated to one reasoning process especially over another.

    The controlling ego has a lot to do with this for the main reason when we seem to find the answer of all things we look no further, deductive reasoning & spiritual awareness are one of the same because both once they find this be & end all they look no further. The ego is a tricky little human trait indeed.

    By the way to my adversaries, this is actually having ago at people who only deductively reason & people who are spiritually aware.

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