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commented on July 25, 2012
Have you heard about Ken Wilber's Integral Theory? It is supposed to be post post modern in origin but the Incas had similar ideas in their FOUR SUYUS or "Quadrants". The basic structure is repeated in the pre modern, mythical, Quechua civilization of the Incas. it is a if there were a universal perennial wisdom that arises every time the "identity of opposites" is considered by mystical thinkers/experiencers.
While the Incas emphasized RELATIONS between pairs in a living world and the Greek Christians Jews Arabs and Hindus emphasized transcendental UNITY, they implicitly had elements of each other's realizations which, after all, also were...complementary!
In Wilber's model we have the Individual Dimension above, the Plural Dimension below, the Interior Dimension on one side and the Exterior Dimension on the other side. These generate FOUR SPACES of life. Everything that manifests does it through this four spaces, perspectives or wasy of being: The SUBJECTIVE, the OBJECTIVE, the INTERSUBJECTIVE, the INTEROBJECTIVE.
The Incas (or Quechuas) had the Upper called "HANAN" meaning superior, above, abstract (and often related nowaday with Heaven). They had the Lower called "UKU or URIN" meaning inferior, below, hidden, chaotic, plural. They had Right Side "ALLAUCA" associated with the rising Sun, the word "Yanan" (bright, essence). They had a Left Side "ICHOQ" associated with the Moon (mama Killa). it is as if the subjetive were the shining light and the objective the receiving object that reflects the light.
In some ways the structure coincides as if the same general intuitions or associations had unveiled the same pattern.
Wilber's Integral Theory is important to understand how complexity and the contingent world arises following a holonic or holarchical pattern. It can add to complexity theory, chaos theory, emergentism, bifurcation points, holography, fractals, etc. It is a "piece of the puzzle." Interestingly the Incas also seem to have known about fractals. They have a symbol called "TAWA CHAKANA" that represents a bridge between the "three worlds" (Hanan Pacha, Uku Pacha and Kay Pacha) and much more (like the four directions, the fifth central direction from where life (KAWSAY) issues forth, and a proportional relation between the square and the circle). http://www.oocities.org/MPLT_4/tawachakana.htm